Laser Lit Review April 2018

Compiled by Dr Igor Cernavin, Prosthodontist, Honorary Senior Fellow University of Melbourne School of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, Director and Cofounder of the Asia Pacific Institute of Dental Education and Research (AIDER), Australian representative of World Federation of Laser Dentistry (WFLD).


Olivi et al1 continue their publication on lasers in paediatric dentistry with an article on soft tissue laser applications. The abstract is reproduced below.

Lasers can provide effective soft tissues applications in children. All the wavelengths produce incision and vaporisation of oral tissues, together with a high bactericidal effect. The haemosthatic effect varie

s according to the wavelength used, and the choice of a visibile, near, medium or far infrared laser allows a better interaction with specific targets, gingiva, mucosa, frenum, or oral pathology.


Fumes2 and coworkers carried out a systematic literature review to evaluate the effect of aPDT on S. mutans and C. albicans present in the dental biofilm, using methylene blue as a photosensitizer in different pre-irradiation times. They found that it had satisfactory results in both C. albicans and S. mutans when using methylene blue as a photosensitizer.


Azizi et al3 evaluated the antimicrobial efficacy of photodynamic therapy and light-activated disinfection on zirconia dental implants contaminated with three bacterial species to see if it caused implant surface alterations. They found that it showed high and equal effectiveness in decontamination of zirconia dental implants and caused no damage to the implants.


Ghabraei and coworkers4 studied the effect of photobiomodulation on the depth of anesthesia during endodontic treatment of teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis (Double Blind Randomized Clinical Trial). They concluded that its application before anesthesia is effective on increasing the depth of the anesthesia.


Shahabi et al5 evaluated tooth color changes following conventional in-office bleaching techniques compared with light-activated methods using different light sources. Their results showed that all bleaching techniques were effective however, the KTP laser-activated bleaching was significantly more efficient, closely followed by the CO2 laser-activated bleaching technique.


Anhesini and coworkers6 presented results of treatment for hypersensitivity using a low power laser of 808 nm and a power of 100 Mw for 10 seconds resulting with no pain post treatment.


Ngoc et al7 have published an interesting case in the treatment of a young patient with haemophilia A which you might find interesting. The abstract is reproduced in full. Hemophilia-a bleeding disorder due to the lack of clotting factors-is mostly induced by genetic factors. Its most common type is hemophilia A. Hemorrhage in hemophilia A may occur in several different sites of the body, including those inside the oral cavity, such as mucous membrane and gum. However, only a few studies and case reports on dental issues of hemophilia A patients have been conducted. In clinical dentistry, treatment procedures are invasive, possibly leading to more severe bleeding, especially in hemophilia A cases. This paper presents the case of a 4-year-old boy diagnosed with severe hemophilia A, who also had several dental problems that needed endodontic treatment. We used laser diode to manage pulpotomy under general anesthesia to treat his dental diseases. His treatment procedure was performed by a dental surgeon, a hematologist, and an anesthesiologist.


Convissar8 published an article on the ethical and legal implications when using a diode laser for periodontal treatment. The abstract is reproduced in full.

BACKGROUND: Lasers are promoted as viable adjunctive treatment methods for nonsurgical periodontal pocket reduction; however, the literature supporting this use is lacking. Multiple meta-analyses found no benefit to laser use for this procedure. The American Dental Association issued clinical practice guidelines about laser use in periodontal pockets, concluding that diode, neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet, and erbium lasers have no benefit as adjunctive therapies to scaling and root planing. The author explores the use of diode lasers for nonsurgical pocket therapy from a legal and ethical perspective. CONCLUSIONS: Because clinical practice guidelines help define standard of care, both legal and ethical issues arise when dentists use lasers in periodontal pockets. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Dentists must make certain they understand both the legal and ethical ramifications of using diode lasers for nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Performing a procedure in violation of clinical practice guidelines might be construed as both an ethical violation and potential malpractice.


Takagi et al9 have written an article to investigate the morphological changes of the microstructured fixture surface after erbium laser irradiation, and to clarify the effects of the erbium lasers when used to remove calcified deposits from implant fixture surfaces. They concluded that Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers are more advantageous in removing calcified deposits on the microstructured surface of titanium implants without inducing damage, compared with mechanical therapy by cotton pellet or titanium curette.


Mendez and coworkers10 evaluated the influence of photodynamic therapy on the viability of microorganisms, vitality of biofilms, and lactic acid production of dentin caries microcosms using a LED at 630nm and found that it was was effective in controlling the viability, vitality and the acidogenicity of dentin caries microcosms.


Ferreira et al11 evaluated the effects of root surface modification with mechanic, chemical, and photodynamic treatments on adhesion and proliferation of human gingival fibroblasts and osteoblasts. Their conclusion was that aPDT treatment provided a positive stimulus to osteoblast growth and for fibroblasts and it had a tendency for higher cell growth.


Kara and coworkers12 evaluated the effects of LLLT which could activate precancerous cells or increase existing cancerous tissue in case of clinically undetectable situations and concluded that it did.

Akram et al13 evaluated the effectiveness of low level laser therapy as an adjunct to connective tissue graft procedure for the treatment of gingival recession and concluded that there was a significant improvement in the predictability and stability of root coverage outcomes compared with connective tissue graft procedure alone.


Abtahi and coworkers14 evaluated histological effects of Low Level Laser on alveolar bone remodeling during experimental tooth movement in rabbits and found that it could accelerate tooth movement in rabbits via increased resorptive activity in alveolar bone.


References:

1. Olivi, G; Caprioglio, C; Olivi, M; Genovese, M D. Paediatric laser dentistry. Part 4: Soft tissue laser applications. European journal of paediatric dentistry : official journal of European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry, 18 (4):332-334; 10.23804/ejpd.2017.18.04.12 2017-Dec.

2. Fumes, Ana Caroline; da Silva Telles, Paloma Dias; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori; Borsatto, Maria Cristina. Effect of aPDT on Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans present in the dental biofilm: Systematic review. Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy, 10.1016/j.pdpdt.2018.01.013 2018-Feb-02.

3. Azizi, Bleron; Budimir, Ana; Bago, Ivona; Mehmeti, Blerim; Jakovljevic, Suzana; Kelmendi, Jeta; Stanko, Aleksandra Presecki; Gabric, Dragana. Antimicrobial efficacy of photodynamic therapy and light-activated disinfection on contaminated zirconia implants: an in vitro study. Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy, 10.1016/j.pdpdt.2018.01.017 2018-Feb-01.

4. Ghabraei, Sholeh; Chiniforush, Nasim; Bolhari, Behnam; Aminsobhani, Mohsen; Khosarvi, Abbas. The Effect of Photobiomodulation on the Depth of Anesthesia During Endodontic Treatment of Teeth With Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis (Double Blind Randomized Clinical Trial). Journal of lasers in medical sciences, 9 (1):11-14; 10.15171/jlms.2018.03 2018.

5. Shahabi, Sima; Assadian, Hadi; Mahmoudi Nahavandi, Alireza; Nokhbatolfoghahaei, Hanieh. Comparison of Tooth Color Change After Bleaching With Conventional and Different Light-Activated Methods. Journal of lasers in medical sciences, 9 (1):27-31; 10.15171/jlms.2018.07 2018.

6. Anhesini, Brunna Haddad; Mayer-Santos, Eric; Francisconi-Dos-Rios, Luciana Favaro; Freitas, Patricia Moreira de; Eduardo, Carlos Paula; Aranha, Ana Cecilia Correa. Photobiomodulation versus direct restoration in a patient presenting with dentinal hypersensitivity: a 6-month follow-up. General dentistry, 66 (2):69-73; 2018 Mar-Apr.

7. Ngoc, Vo Truong Nhu; Van Nga, Trinh Do; Chu, Dinh-Toi; Anh, Le Quynh. Pulpotomy management using laser diode in pediatric patient with severe hemophilia A under general anesthesia-A case report. Special care in dentistry : official publication of the American Association of Hospital Dentists, the Academy of Dentistry for the Handicapped, and the American Society for Geriatric Dentistry, 10.1111/scd.12279 2018-Mar-14.

8. Convissar, Robert A. Ethical and legal ramifications of using diode lasers for nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Journal of the American Dental Association (1939), 10.1016/j.adaj.2017.11.030 2018-Mar-13.

9. Takagi, Toru; Aoki, Akira; Ichinose, Shizuko; Taniguchi, Yoichi;

Tachikawa, Noriko; Shinoki, Takeshi; Meinzer, Walter; Sculean, Anton;Izumi, Yuichi. Effective removal of calcified deposits on microstructured titanium fixture surfaces of dental implants with erbium lasers. Journal of periodontology, 10.1002/JPER.17-0389 2018-Mar-13.

10. Mendez, Daniela Alejandra Cusicanqui; Gutierrez, Eliezer; Dionisio, Evandro Jose; Oliveira, Thais Marchini; Buzalaf, Marilia Afonso Rabelo; Rios, Daniela; Machado, Maria Aparecida Andrade Moreira; Cruvinel, Thiago. Effect of methylene blue-mediated antimicrobial photodynamic therapy on dentin caries microcosms. Lasers in medical science, 33 (3):479-487; 10.1007/s10103-017-2379-3 2018-Apr.

11. Ferreira, Rafael; de Toledo Barros, Renato Taddei; Karam, Paula Stephania Brandao Hage; Sant'Ana, Adriana Campos Passanezi; Greghi, Sebastiao Luiz Aguiar; de Rezende, Maria Lucia Rubo; Zangrando, Mariana Schutzer Ragghianti; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Cardoso; Damante, Carla Andreotti. Comparison of the effect of root surface modification with citric acid, EDTA, and aPDT on adhesion and proliferation of human gingival fibroblasts and osteoblasts: an in vitro study. Lasers in medical science, 33 (3):533-538; 10.1007/s10103-017-2395-3 2018-Apr.

12. Kara, C; Selamet, H; Gokmenoglu, C; Kara, N. Low level laser therapy induces increased viability and proliferation in isolated cancer cells. Cell proliferation, 51 (2):e12417; 10.1111/cpr.12417 2018-Apr.

13. Akram, Zohaib; Vohra, Fahim; Javed, Fawad. Low-level laser therapy as an adjunct to connective tissue graft procedure in the treatment of gingival recession defects: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of esthetic and restorative dentistry : official publication of the American Academy of Esthetic Dentistry ... [et al.], 10.1111/jerd.12377 2018-Mar-26.

14. Abtahi, Mostafa; Saghravanian, Nasrollah; Poosti, Maryam; Shafaee, Hooman. Histological evaluation of orthodontic tooth movement following low level laser irradiation in rabbits. Electronic physician, 10 (1):6219-6222; 10.19082/6219 2018-Jan.

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