Laser Literature Review - December 2019

Compiled by Dr Igor Cernavin, Prosthodontist, Honorary Senior Fellow University of Melbourne School of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, Director and Cofounder of the Asia Pacific Institute of Dental Education and Research (AIDER), Australian representative of World Federation of Laser Dentistry (WFLD).


Alqahtani et al1 evaluated the effectiveness of diode laser irradiation combined with topical fluoride application for increasing the hardness of demineralized bovine enamel and esthetically improving white-spot lesions (WSLs). They concluded that it significantly increased the hardness and improved the esthetic appearance of WSLs compared with no treatment (control) and fluoride treatment alone. Intrapulpal temperature changes indicated that diode laser irradiation is safer at a 2-W setting than a 5-W setting.


Bardellini and coworkers2 evaluated the efficacy of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) - in terms of pain and of quality of life- in patients affected by burning mouth syndrome (BMS). They concluded that there was a positive effect in relieving BMS symptoms and in improving a patient's overall quality of life.


Resende et al3 evaluated the influence of the Er,Cr:YSGG laser with or without the 5% fluoride varnish on the acid resistance of dentin after erosive challenge. They found that it was an effective method to increase the acid resistance.


Chambrone and coworkers4 published a systematic review evaluating the efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT), as an adjunct to non-surgical or surgical therapy, on clinical and patient-centered outcomes in patients with periodontitis or peri-implantitis. They concluded that aPDT may provide similar clinical improvements in probing depth and clinical attachment levels when compared with conventional periodontal therapy for both periodontitis and peri-implantitis patients.


Amorim Dos Santos et al5 evaluated therapeutic effects of laser therapy on patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis and concluded that it was an effective treatment.


Liu and coworkers6 published an article examining the effects of Er:YAG Laser on the Attachment of Human Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts to Denuded Root Surfaces. They concluded that this laser was compatible with fibroblast attachment.


Alkhasi et al7 published a study to evaluate the removal of feldspathic and lithium disilicate reinforced glass ceramic veneers by Er,Cr:YSGG and to measure debonding time and pulpal temperature increase during veneer removal. Their results showed that there was no significant difference for debonding time among these ceramic materials and no irritating temperature rise was detected.


Paryab and coworkers8 assessed the shear bond strength of a total-etch and self-etch adhesive system to primary tooth dentin prepared by two different energy densities of Er:YAG laser in comparison with surfaces prepared by bur. They concluded that in terms of shear bond strength to dentin, Single Bond and Clearfil SE Bond adhesive agents adequately perform in primary tooth dentin prepared by Er:YAG laser with energy levels of 300 and 400 mJ and frequency of 10 Hz.


Zhang and coworkers9 investigated the effect of Er:YAG laser irradiation, compared with conventional methods, on the shear bond strength of enamel and dentin and concluded that bond strength using Er:YAG laser preparation was significantly higher than that of the blank control (conventionally treated) group.


Sapra et al10 examined whether a near-infrared diode laser could be used as an adjunct to help identify and localise symptomatic cracks in patients with cracked tooth. An 810-nm diode laser at 1W continuous wave energy with a 200 micro-fibre tip was used to scan the offending tooth. They concluded that the laser was able to significantly (P=0.0001) identify suspected cracked teeth from non-cracked control teeth.


Luke and coworkers11 published a review of the the uses of lasers in oral mucosal lesions which members may find of interest.


Vahdatina et al12 published a review of the literature about the photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) dental treatment protocols in endodontic, restorative, and prosthetic dentistry based on validated clinical studies published so far. More specifically, this study was carried out to carefully review therapeutic protocol of PBMT in clinical studies and their conclusions. Background data: The importance of using low-power lasers and photobiomodulation (PBM) is increasing in dentistry mainly due to their painless and noninvasive function. However, lack of sufficient clinical studies has led to unclear results regarding PBMT in dentistry, and also lack of an available precise protocol for clinicians. Moreover, scarcity of clinical studies in this area has made conduction of a precise systematic review study difficult. They write that the use of alternative or adjunctive PBMT is of great importance in controlling postoperative pain after endodontic treatments. In addition, evidence suggests that different parameters of light can be efficient in the treatment of tooth hypersensitivity. Nevertheless, lack of sufficient clinical studies and reliable results do not allow introducing a precise treatment protocol. Our perennial problem but an interesting read.


Evangelista and coworkers13 published a clinical case of a young patient submitted to low-level laser therapy for the treatment of paresthesia of the inferior alveolar nerve after removal of a complex odontoma in the posterior region of the mandible. Their approach members may find of interest. Their abstract is presented in detail.

Twenty-four hours after the surgical procedure the patient started the low-level laser therapy with the following parameters: 100 mW of potency, 140 J/cm2 of energy density, 4 J of energy per application point, 40 seconds of application per point and 0.028 cm2 of spot area. For this particular case, the technique of alternation of laser wavelengths was used, in the first session of which visible red of 660 nm was applied, followed by near-infrared of 808 nm and so on. Results: In the first session, the score on the visual analog scale (VAS) was "3". In the tenth and last sessions, the patient reported a VAS "9". Conclusions: It seems that the early initiation of the low-level laser therapy favors a better outcome in cases like the one presented in this paper. The technique of alternation of laser wavelengths between sessions seems to have some role in the outcome possibly because of the constant stimulation of different chromophores along the treatment course. These two factors need further confirmation and validation through randomized clinical trials.


REFERENCES

1. Alqahtani, Mohammad A; Andreana, Sebastiano; Rumfola, Joseph L; Davis, Elaine. Effect of diode laser and topical fluoride applications on white-spot lesions in bovine enamel. General dentistry, 67 (6):45-51; 2019 Nov-Dec.

2. Bardellini, E; Amadori, F; Conti, G; Majorana, A. Efficacy of the photobiomodulation therapy in the treatment of the burning mouth syndrome. Medicina oral, patologia oral y cirugia bucal, 10.4317/medoral.23143 2019-Oct-27.

3. Resende, Ranielle F; Arantes, Brenda F; Palma-Dibb, Regina G; et al.

American journal of dentistry  Volume: 32 Issue: 5 Pages: 215-218 Published: 2019-Oct.

4. Chambrone, Leandro; Wang, Hom-Lay; Romanos, Georgios E. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy for the treatment of periodontitis and peri-implantitis: An American Academy of Periodontology best evidence review.Journal of periodontology Volume:89 Issue:7Pages:783-803.

5. Amorim Dos Santos, Juliana; Normando, Ana Gabriela Costa; de Toledo, Isabela Porto; Melo, Gilberto; De Luca Canto, Graziela; et al. Laser therapy for recurrent aphthous stomatitis: an overview. Clinical oral investigations DOI:10.1007/s00784-019-03144-z Published: 2019-Nov-12 (Epub 2019 Nov 12).

6. Effects of Er:YAG Laser on the Attachment of Human Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts to Denuded Root Surfaces Simulating Delayed Replantation Cases: An In Vitro Study. Liu, Jingyi; Zhou, Zhixiong; Zhang, Sun Photobiomodulation, photomedicine, and laser surgery Published: 2019-Nov-19 (Epub 2019 Nov 19).

7. Alikhasi, Marzieh; Monzavi, Abbas; Ebrahimi, Hooman; Pirmoradian, Maryam; Shamshiri, Ahmadreza; Ghazanfari, Rezvaneh. Debonding Time and Dental Pulp Temperature With the Er, Cr: YSGG Laser for Debonding Feldespathic and Lithium Disilicate Veneers.

8. Mehrsa Paryab1*, Shahrzad Sharifi1, Mohammad Javad Kharazifard2, Nazanin Kumarci. Cavity Preparation by Laser in Primary Teeth: Effect of 2 Levels of Energy Output on the Shear Bond Strength of Composite Restoration to Dentin. J Lasers Med Sci 2019 Summer;10(3):235-240.

9. Zhang, Ying; Jiang, Aijia. The influence of Er:YAG laser treatment on the shear bond strength of enamel and dentin: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Quintessence international (Berlin, Germany : 1985) Volume:51 Issue:1Pages:8-16 DOI:10.3290/j.qi.a43648 Published: 2020.

10.Sapra, Ashita; Darbar, Arun; George, Roy. Laser-assisted diagnosis of symptomatic cracks in teeth with cracked tooth: A 4-year in-vivo follow-up study. Australian endodontic journal : the journal of the Australian Society of Endodontology Inc DOI:10.1111/aej.12391 Published: 2019-Dec-09 (Epub 2019 Dec 09) .

11.Luke, Alexander Maninagat; Mathew, Simy; Altawash, Maram Majed; Madan, Bayan Mohammed. Lasers: A Review With Their Applications in Oral Medicine. Journal of lasers in medical sciences. Volume:10 Issue:4 Pages:324-329.

12.ahdatinia, Farshid; Gholami, Leila; Karkehabadi, Hamed; Fekrazad, Reza. Photobiomodulation in Endodontic, Restorative, and Prosthetic Dentistry: A Review of the Literature. Photobiomodulation, photomedicine, and laser surgery. Volume:37 Issue:12 Pages:869-886.

13.Girao Evangelista, Icaro; Pontes Tabosa, Fernando Bruno; Bezerra, Ariel Valente; de Araujo Neto, Eliziario Vitoriano Jr. Low-Level Laser Therapy in the Treatment of Inferior Alveolar Nerve Paresthesia After Surgical Exeresis of a Complex Odontoma. Journal of lasers in medical sciences. Volume:10 Issue:4 Pages:342-345 DOI:10.15171/jlms.2019.55.

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