Laser Literature Review October 2020

Compiled by Dr Igor Cernavin, Prosthodontist, Honorary Senior Fellow University of Melbourne School of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, Director and Cofounder of the Asia Pacific Institute of Dental Education and Research (AIDER), Australian representative of World Federation of Laser Dentistry (WFLD).


Wang et al1 carried out a pilot clinical trial to evaluate the adjunctive benefits of Er:YAG laser irradiation for regenerative surgical therapy of peri-implantitis-associated osseous defects and concluded that it aided in producing better probing depth reduction.


Mohajerani and coworkers2 published a study to evaluate the therapeutic effect of combined low-level laser (LLL) and light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation on the recovery rate of complications after extraction of mandibular third molars, including pain, swelling, and trismus and found that such treatment was quite effective.


Walinski et al3 evaluated the influence of an erbium, chromium: yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser using multiple tip types, on the removal of retained cement on a titanium implant surface. They concluded that the most appropriate method of removing residual cement from a TiUnite coated titanium implant surface is by using an Er,Cr:YSGG laser device fitted with a side-firing laser tip. Laser parameters of 50 mJ/pulse and 30 Hz (1.5W average power), with at least 50% water and 40% air in the aerosolized water spray are ideal.


Laky and coworkers4 published a prospective study to evaluate the 655 nm InGaAsP diode laser in detecting subgingival calculus in patients with periodontal disease compared to photographic assessment during periodontal surgery. They found that it was able to do this and therefore it could be used as an additional tool for calculus detection in non-surgical periodontal therapy.

Coluzzi et al5 carried out a literature review to determine whether lasers have a beneficial role when used adjunctively in non-surgical periodontal therapy and concluded that when the parameters are correct they do.


Fraga and coworkers6 designed a study to examine the efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in reducing postoperative pain and edema after molar extractions and concluded that it was effective and can be used in every day practice.


Plog et al7 published an article introducing a novel way of controlling aerosols in dentistry. The abstract is reproduced in full.


The aerosol transmissibility of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has impacted the delivery of health care and essentially stopped the provision of medical and dental therapies. Dentistry uses rotary, ultrasonic, and laser-based instruments that produce water-based aerosols in the daily, routine treatment of patients. Abundant aerosols are generated, which reach health care workers and other patients. Viruses, including SARS-CoV-2 virus and related coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, continued expansion throughout the USA and the world. The virus is spread by both droplet (visible drops) and aerosol (practically invisible drops) transmission. The generation of aerosols in dentistry-an unavoidable part of most dental treatments-creates a high-risk situation. The US Centers for Disease Control and The Occupational Safety and Health Administration consider dental procedures to be of "highest risk" in the potential spreading of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses. There are several ways to reduce or eliminate the virus: (i) cease or postpone dentistry (public and personal health risk), (ii) screen patients immediately prior to dental treatment (by appropriate testing, if any), (iii) block/remove the virus containing aerosol by engineering controls together with stringent personal protective equipment use. The present work takes a novel, fourth approach. By altering the physical response of water to the rotary or ultrasonic forces that are used in dentistry, the generation of aerosol particles and the distance any aerosol may spread beyond the point of generation can be markedly suppressed or completely eliminated in comparison to water for both the ultrasonic scaler and dental handpiece.


Daigo and coworkers8 published a literature review of wound healing and socket preservation after tooth extraction using high intensity laser therapy and photobiomodulation which readers may find interesting.


An et al9 reviewed the mechanisms involved in low level laser-assisted functional restoration of nerve injury and its clinical application in the recovery of nerve function in the dental and maxillofacial area as well, which readers may find of interest.


References.


1. Wang, Jeff Chin-Wei; Ashnagar, Sajjad; Gianflippo, Riccardo Di; et al. Laser-assisted regenerative surgical therapy for peri-implantitis: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Journal of periodontology Published: ‏ 2020-Aug-06 (Epub 2020 Aug 06). 2.

2. Mohajerani, Hassan; Tabeie, Faraj; Alirezaei, Arash; et al. Does Combined Low-Level Laser and Light-Emitting Diode Light Irradiation Reduce Pain, Swelling, and Trismus After Surgical Extraction of Mandibular Third Molars? A Randomized Double-Blinded Crossover Study. Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery: official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons Published: ‏ 2020-Jul-18 (Epub 2020 Jul 18).

3. Walinski, Christopher J, Ou, Keng-Liang. Resin cement removal from titanium dental implant surface using a novel side-firing laser fiber and Er,Cr:YSGG irradiation. American journal of dentistry Volume: 33 Issue: 4 Pages: ‏ 178-182 Published: ‏ 2020-Aug.

4. Laky, Markus; Laky, Brenda; Arslan, Muazzez; et al. Effectiveness of a 655 nm InGaAsP diode-laser to detect subgingival calculus in patients with periodontal disease. Journal of periodontology Published: ‏ 2020-Aug-12 (Epub 2020 Aug 12).

5. Coluzzi, Donald; Anagnostaki, Eugenia; Mylona, Valina; et al.

Do Lasers Have an Adjunctive Role in Initial Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy? A Systematic Review. Dentistry. Journal Volume: ‏ 8 Issue:‏ 3 Published: ‏ 2020 Aug 16

6. Fraga, Renato Silva; Alves Antunes, Livia Azeredo; Soares Fialho, Walter Luis; et al.

Do Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy and Low-Level Laser Therapy Minimize Postoperative Pain and Edema After Molar Extraction?

Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery: official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published: ‏ 2020-Aug-07 (Epub 2020 Aug 07).

7. Plog, Jevon; Wu, Jingwei; Dias, Yasmin J. et al. Reopening dentistry after COVID-19: Complete suppression of aerosolization in dental procedures by viscoelastic Medusa Gorgo. Physics of fluids (Woodbury, N.Y : (1994) Volume: ‏ 32 Issue: 8 Pages: ‏ 083111 Published: ‏ 2020-Aug-01 (Epub 2020 Aug 25).

8. Daigo, Yuki; Daigo, Erina; Fukuoka, Hiroshi; et al. Wound Healing and Cell Dynamics Including Mesenchymal and Dental Pulp Stem Cells Induced by Photobiomodulation Therapy: An Example of Socket-Preserving Effects after Tooth Extraction in Rats and a Literature Review. International journal of molecular sciences Volume: ‏ 21 Issue: 18 Published: ‏ 2020 Sep 18.

9. An, Pu Gen; Zhao, Ji Zhi. Advance in Functional Restoration of Injured Nerve with Low Level Laser and its Utilization in the Dental and Maxillofacial Region. Chinese medical sciences journal = Chung-kuo i hsueh k'o hsueh tsa chih Volume: ‏ 35 Issue: 3 Pages: ‏ 272-277 Published: ‏ 2020-Sep-30.





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